Friday, October 18, 2019

Development of a microfluidic device for extraction Essay

Development of a microfluidic device for extraction - Essay Example This newly microfluidic device for protein extraction may find an application in the area of proteomic research. Keywords: Microfluidic device; Sol-gel; Silica monolith; Protein extraction; Octadecyl (C18) 1. Introduction It is becoming increasingly important in the development of new medicines to use important a microfluidic tool for identifying proteins implicated in disease pathways. As the search for novel molecules to tackle diseases increases, the need to identify proteins on biological targets also increases. Efficient extraction of proteins is the most critical step for proteomics by removing the interfering materials and improving the detection sensitivity (Ahn & Wang, 2008). The recently invented silica monolithic materials are highly permeable to liquid flow and have high mass transport compared with the packed beds. Moreover, the monolithic stationary phase does not need frits, which can cause air bubbles to form and the proteins can be adsorbed into the frits and remain trapped (Cabrera et al., 2002 ). Fabrication silica monolith inside the microfluidic devices can decrease the volume of the sample and the reagents, and reduce the time of the analysis (Girault et al., 2004). Bienvenue et al. (2006) have observed that the negative aspect of the sol-gel monolith in microfluidic device is the fact that it shrinks while the monolith is formed. They further explain that this is can then cause the creation of an opening between the silica network and the microchip wall resulting in reduced surface area for protein adsoption. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the fabrication of a simple microfluidic device contained in a crack-free silica monolith to decrease sample handling, reduce contamination, be truly portable, and decrease analysis time. Moreover, its aim is to modify the surface of the silica monolith to Octadecyl silica (ODS) to use it for pre-concentration and extraction of proteins. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Chemicals and materi als Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) MW=10,000 Da, trimethylchlorosilane, tetramethylorthosilicate 99 % (TMOS), chlorodimethyloctadecylsilane 95 %, 2,6-lutidine 99 %, NaCl, and trizma base were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Poole, UK) and used as received without any further purification. Bovine pancreas insulin, bovine heart cytochrome C, chicken egg white lysozyme, ?-lactoglobulin from milk bovine, haemoglobin from human, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purchased from the same. Nitric acid, ammonia, toluene, HPLC grade acetonitrile (ACN), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was obtained from Fisher Scientific UK Ltd. (Loughborough, UK). MicroTight Adapter was purchased from Kinesis (Cambs, UK). Poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tubing was purchased from Anachem (Luton, UK). 2.2. Instrumentation Baby bee syringe pump from Bioanalytical System Inc. (West Lafayette, USA). The instrument used for detection was HPLC-UV detection: 785A UV/Visible Detector from Perkin Elmer (California, USA). T he reversed-phase analytical column was Symmetry C8 column, 4.6 mm ? 250 mm packed with silica particles (size 5 Â µm) from Thermo Fisher Scientific (Loughborough, UK). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) (EVO 60. Manufacturer: Carl Zeiss Ltd. (Welwyn Garden City, UK). SEMPREP 2 Sputter Coater from Nanotechnology Ltd. (Sandy, UK). 2.3. Fabrication of the silica-based

Fundamentals of Information and Information Systems Essay

Fundamentals of Information and Information Systems - Essay Example This report pertains to the current position of Hewlett Packard (HP) Information Systems, its current business problems and the way ahead for this business organization. My first impression at the outset of the ESS Information System (E-Services Solution)group is to point out that this venture may be successful at the outset given the period 1999 until 2000 but it has all the ingredients of becoming a victim of its own success and potentially damaging the work culture of HP with the so called aim of "infecting" the entire spirit.(see Case Study 2000).I would reach such a bleak conclusion for many reasons which I will discuss below but the pith and substance of my analysis as a management consultant is that "small is beautiful" but once it gets large it becomes ugly. And this is true for HP's future if the ESS information system which is under discussion here is allowed to grown into its organizational management and Information System culture. ... And this is true for HP's future if the ESS information system which is under discussion here is allowed to grown into its organizational management and Information System culture. It can be seen that in 1999 alone through the efforts of the ESS Information System,HP has achieved the status as a leading manufacturer of computer products, including printers, servers, workstations, and personal computers and is generating a revenue of $42.4 billion and net income of $3.1 billion.It has over 80,000 employees worldwide and a strong local presence in Silicon Valley and the Bay Area. The problems of HP and the role of ESS.The case study has given us a bird's eyes view of the historical problems with the management strategy of HP as follows. 1. In 1939 Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard, found HP and were an instant success with their venture and wanted to pursue their own unique way of doing business: "The HP Way." The evolution of the HP Way began early. Even though their decentralized management information system style was a success in the earlier dealing and by 1957 Hewlett and Packard had their own corporate objectives, underling the "The HP Way" through management strategies like Management By Wandering Around, Management By Objectives, and the Open Door Policy inspired later additions, including Open Communication and Total Quality Control .These practices cannot be seen anywhere today and later on the conservative attitude of the HP information system management with in a decentralized company was more product oriented than customer oriented.(refer to Case Study 2000) 2. At this point HP's corporate software and support division and corporate systems

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Is the hotel postmodernist Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Is the hotel postmodernist - Essay Example The reason I like Atlantis, the Palm hotel Dubai is due to its ideal location and huge infrastructure. It’s not only the building, the architecture and the interior of the building that enchants my soul but the location and the theme of the hotel mesmerize me. The entire hotel is based on a resort theme; a world surrounded by water and marine life as well as it provides a world of recreational activities for the people staying on board which makes it different from other hotels all around the world. It is a post modern hotel as mentioned earlier that it is a 5 star resort which is surrounded by Aquaventure themed water park on 40 acres. The hotel also has a conference center for high end executive class meetings and conferences. What makes this hotel interesting is the presence of Dolphin Bay which gives a lifetime opportunity to the guests to swim and play with dolphins while enjoying their stay at hotel. Each corner of the hotel represents the unique taste of Arabia with the sea-facing sights and an insight to marine life from the corner of every wall within the hotel. Interior Design: The interior of the hotel is designed by the efforts of internationally known designers and interiors. It was a joint effort by Jeffert Beers of JBI (Jeffery Beers International) along with the skilled team of designers from David Rockwell from the Rockwell Group and Adam D. Tihany. Others including Wilson and Associates, WATG, EDSA and Wimberly have given the best of their efforts in creating an excellent masterpiece. The hotel also features the works by the world class interior artists Dale Chihuly and Albino Gonzalez. The lobby of the Royal Towers at arrival greets the tourists and the guests with its magnificent artwork and murals. The 19 meter high ceiling of the lobby welcomes the guests with splendid hand artwork painted by Albino Gonzalez; a Spanish artist. The murals on the ceilings depicts four seasons of the year along with the fine representation of solar cal endar’s development. The ceilings finely tell the story of Arabian legends and their splendor to the visitors. The entire interior of the hotel makes it uniquely different from other hotels around the world. Location Atlantis, the Palm is located at The Palm, Dubai which is an artificial sand island. The island itself is shaped like a palm tree which makes the location interesting for the visitors and the tourists. The hotel has a total of 1539 rooms. It was a huge project which cost 1.8$ billion during its construction. The relationship between the construction sector and the Dubai’s hotel industry has been extremely positive. Ideally, the Northern corridors of Dubai including its favorite tourism destinations have become the focus of modern designs. The implementation of a number of tourism concepts across the Arab Peninsula has become an answer to the country’s bristling hotel industry. The Dubai historical factor as well as the stylistic-semiotic study which covers the development of the country’s hotel architecture indicates that the focus is based on the hotel-casino complexes and the self-styled postmodernist buildings. Their impact is significant because the modernist attitude include the changing trends that mirage the International Styles and rarely defined traditional Dubai Architectures. Introduction The relatively short Dubai coastline provides a symbolic history that explains the country’s is strategically located and it has been found to be

Macro Written Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Macro Written Assignment - Essay Example The latter on the other hand, augments the overall money supply in the economy more precipitously. Expansionary policies are conventionally utilized in the attempt of combating unemployment in an economic downturn. This is achieved by depressing the rates of interest with the intention of allowing easy credit to entice business expansion. Contractionary policies are expected to decelerate inflation so as to prevent the consequential distortions combined with the relapse of the values of assets (Weale, 2013). The United Kingdom public might expect a change in monetary policies because of the falling unemployment and economic recovery that the country is experiencing. The change anticipated to happen is the overhauling or revamping of the interest rate policy of the Bank of England. The interest rates are to be determined by unemployment, among other indicators. The introduction of the forward guidance policy kept the bank from increasing interest rates to beyond 0.5 per cent. The bank governor, Mark Carney, however, asserted that the policy needed revising because of the outstanding strong growth in employment. This adjustment involves rising rates of interest. This is to be done following the observation of such indicators as spare capacity within the economy, wages as well as productivity. The bank is to provide predictions on these range of indicators based on expectations of the market of 1.5 per cent increase by the year 2017. The Bank of England outlined its stratagems for alterations in rates of interest in the future. This could probably mean more suffering for the saving population but there would continue to be inexpensive mortgage rates. The Bank would only consider increasing the current low interest rate levels if either inflation or unemployment or both was no longer manageable. The stratagem or change in monetary policy known as the forward guidance would affect the main indicators in

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Is the hotel postmodernist Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Is the hotel postmodernist - Essay Example The reason I like Atlantis, the Palm hotel Dubai is due to its ideal location and huge infrastructure. It’s not only the building, the architecture and the interior of the building that enchants my soul but the location and the theme of the hotel mesmerize me. The entire hotel is based on a resort theme; a world surrounded by water and marine life as well as it provides a world of recreational activities for the people staying on board which makes it different from other hotels all around the world. It is a post modern hotel as mentioned earlier that it is a 5 star resort which is surrounded by Aquaventure themed water park on 40 acres. The hotel also has a conference center for high end executive class meetings and conferences. What makes this hotel interesting is the presence of Dolphin Bay which gives a lifetime opportunity to the guests to swim and play with dolphins while enjoying their stay at hotel. Each corner of the hotel represents the unique taste of Arabia with the sea-facing sights and an insight to marine life from the corner of every wall within the hotel. Interior Design: The interior of the hotel is designed by the efforts of internationally known designers and interiors. It was a joint effort by Jeffert Beers of JBI (Jeffery Beers International) along with the skilled team of designers from David Rockwell from the Rockwell Group and Adam D. Tihany. Others including Wilson and Associates, WATG, EDSA and Wimberly have given the best of their efforts in creating an excellent masterpiece. The hotel also features the works by the world class interior artists Dale Chihuly and Albino Gonzalez. The lobby of the Royal Towers at arrival greets the tourists and the guests with its magnificent artwork and murals. The 19 meter high ceiling of the lobby welcomes the guests with splendid hand artwork painted by Albino Gonzalez; a Spanish artist. The murals on the ceilings depicts four seasons of the year along with the fine representation of solar cal endar’s development. The ceilings finely tell the story of Arabian legends and their splendor to the visitors. The entire interior of the hotel makes it uniquely different from other hotels around the world. Location Atlantis, the Palm is located at The Palm, Dubai which is an artificial sand island. The island itself is shaped like a palm tree which makes the location interesting for the visitors and the tourists. The hotel has a total of 1539 rooms. It was a huge project which cost 1.8$ billion during its construction. The relationship between the construction sector and the Dubai’s hotel industry has been extremely positive. Ideally, the Northern corridors of Dubai including its favorite tourism destinations have become the focus of modern designs. The implementation of a number of tourism concepts across the Arab Peninsula has become an answer to the country’s bristling hotel industry. The Dubai historical factor as well as the stylistic-semiotic study which covers the development of the country’s hotel architecture indicates that the focus is based on the hotel-casino complexes and the self-styled postmodernist buildings. Their impact is significant because the modernist attitude include the changing trends that mirage the International Styles and rarely defined traditional Dubai Architectures. Introduction The relatively short Dubai coastline provides a symbolic history that explains the country’s is strategically located and it has been found to be

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

In-depth analysis of the great military leader George S. Patton from a Research Paper

In-depth analysis of the great military leader George S. Patton from a biographical and characteristic analysis prospective - Research Paper Example Background information Having been born in 1885, George S. Patton rose to become one of the finest officers in the army wing of the United States military. General George Patton, born in San Gabriel to George Smith Patton Sr. came from a Scots-Irish and English descent, according to the study of Wilcox (2010). As a little boy, he was a devoted reader; he particularly liked military stories and classics. This is because he grew up in a military family, though some of his relatives died earlier during the war. According to Wellard (2006), George Patton acquired the motivation to venture into military studies from his family members, who had the love of protecting the people and the entire country. George Patton joined Virginia military institute to pursue his ambitions for one year, and there he undertook studies on the Kappa Alpha Order. Having completed the one year course, George Patton enrolled in the United States Military Academy, which made it mandatory for him to repeat his fir st year as a result of poor performance in some subjects including mathematics. Due to George Patton’s enthusiastic attitude, he repeated the subject and received an honor declaring him a Cadet Adjutant, which was the second highest position a cadet could hold. Having shown dedication in his quest for being in the military, George Patton finished his studies in 1909 and was in a position to become cavalry officer. Literature review The essay focuses on the efforts that George Patton made to ensure that one day he becomes an artistic military officer. This is through enrollment in military schools as seen in the book by Sutcliffe (2005). The thesis places emphasis on the achievements of George Patton from the time he was working as a junior officer until the time when he climbed to become a general in the army. The essay focuses on the various expeditions that George Patton went through, the decisions that he was making that would negatively and positively affect various parti es, and the controversy surrounding him. Having been in the World Wars I and II, George Patton’s character depicts exemplary leadership; the essay explains his qualities that depict able leadership, including the decisions made during the attack on France and Mexico. Visiting injured soldiers shows that he was a praiseworthy leader. The essay focuses on the ways and methods used by George Patton in his quest to secure the nation through the military. The findings in the research regarding the efforts done by George Patton are in consideration. This is because they help link the research question with the previous works written by other researchers. Methodology Among the most important expeditions that the general led is the first mobilized military attack by the United State of America. In this punitive expedition, George Patton had a duty of conducting border patrols around the Fort Bliss. During the expeditions, some militia men made an attack on Mexico, killing a number of American citizens. The attackers faced retaliation from the armed forces led by George Patton. The attack mission was under his leadership; as a result of his enthusiasm towards the mission, according to the study work of Rice (2004), George Patton gained the title of personal aide to the general. General Patton also took part in the World War I, according to Rejai and Phillips (2006); at the onset of the war, when America made a decision to participate,

Monday, October 14, 2019

Oral Health Problems In Children Health And Social Care Essay

Oral Health Problems In Children Health And Social Care Essay Dental caries is the most common oral health problem in children. It is not a new phenomenon in children. Dental caries can arise in early childhood as an aggressive tooth decay that affects the primary teeth of infants and toddlers. Caries constitutes the single most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting as many as 40-50% of U.S. and British children (Pitts et al., 2007) and 60-90% of children worldwide between the ages of 2 and 11 years (Donahue et al., 2005). Dental caries is the localised destruction of susceptible dental hard tissues by acidic by-products from bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates (Fejerskov and Kidd, 2003). The signs of the carious demineralisation are seen on the hard dental tissues, but the disease process is initiated within the bacterial biofilm (dental plaque) that covers a tooth surface. Moreover, the very early changes in the enamel are not detected with traditional clinical and radiographic methods. The disease is initially reversible and can be halted at any stage, even when some dentine or enamel is destroyed (cavitation), provided that enough biofilm can be removed. Dental caries is a chronic disease that progresses slowly in most people. The disease can be seen in both the crown (coronal caries) and root (root caries) portions of primary and permanent teeth, and on smooth as well as pitted and fissured surfaces. It can affect enamel, the outer covering of the crown; cementum, the outermost layer of the root; and dentine, the tissue beneath both enamel and cementum. Caries in primary teeth of preschool children is commonly referred to as early childhood caries. ECC is an alarming problem because the disease is so common and widespread amongst young children. Example, study done by (Zahara et al., 2010) prevalence of caries among preschoolers age 6 and 5 in Malaysia was 60%. And at rural Manitoba community the prevalence of ECC was 44% (Schroth and Moffatt, 2005). Previously, caries in the children was described by a variety of terms including nursing bottle caries, nursing caries, baby bottle caries, baby bottle tooth decay, milk bottle syndrome, and prolonged nursing habit caries. But the new terminology, Early Childhood Caries (ECC) helps us to better reflect that this problem is multifactorial etiologic process not only due to inappropriate feedings methods (Warren, 2008; Ismail 2008). Great needs are need for uniformity when diagnosing and reporting the early childhood caries condition, especially for research purposes. In this respect, a workshop was held in April 1999 in Bethesda, Maryland. In a report for this meeting, (Drury et al., 1999) defined the early childhood caries (ECC) as the presence of 1 or more decayed (noncavitated or cavitated lesions), missing (due to caries), or filled tooth surfaces in any primary tooth in a child 71 months of age or younger. In children younger than 3 years of age, any sign of smooth-surface caries is indicative of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC). From ages 3 through 5, 1 or more cavitated, missing (due to caries), or filled smooth surfaces in primary maxillary anterior teeth or a decayed, missing, or filled score of à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¥4 (age 3), à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¥5 (age 4), or à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¥6 (age 5) surfaces constitutes S-ECC. 2.2 Etiology of early childhood caries Dental caries is an infectious and transmissible disease. Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that starts with microbiological shifts within the complex biofilm and is affected by salivary flow and composition, exposure to fluoride, consumption of dietary sugars, and by preventive behaviours (cleaning teeth). Caries is the result from prolong imbalance in the demineralisation and remineralisation process in the oral cavity. Dissolution of tooth structure by high level of acid concentration which produced by the metabolism of dietary carbohydrate by oral bacteria will promote a demineralisation of tooth structure when the pH of plaque drops below the critical level (pH 5.5) (Riva and Loveren, 2003). However, occurrence of dental caries is not as simple as that. The natural protective factors will try to repair the mechanism by promote remineralisation. It was helps by saliva which play a major role in protecting the teeth from acid challenge. The protective factors of the saliva are, the effective bicarbonate buffering affect, the flow and oral clearance rate and Ca2+, PO43- and fluoride ion contain in the saliva (Mount and Hume, 1998). Reposition of mineral (remineralisation) will occur after the pH of plaque rises (Riva and Loveren, 2003). Development of dental caries occurs when susceptible tooth surface colonized with cariogenic bacteria and present of dietary source of sucrose or refined sugar is present. (Axelson, 2000, Caufield and Griffen, 2000). Generally, it can illustrate under Figure 2.1 below; ETIOLOGY 001 Figure 2.1: Development of dental caries (Keyes, 1960) 2.2.1 Dental Plaque Dental plaque plays a major role in contributing a dental caries. Dental plaque is an accumulation of bacteria and intercellular matrix that form the biofilm that adheres to the surfaces of teeth and other oral structures in the absence of effective oral hygiene (Harris et al., 2009). 2.2.2 Dietary factor Diet plays an important role in preventing and promoting oral diseases including dental caries. Dental caries is a modern, life style dependent disease because of fermentable of carbohydrate. In populations which highly exposed to high sucrose containing food manifested with most severe forms caries (Caufield and Griffen, 2000). Increase frequency of carbohydrate intake will increase the caries risk especially in populations with poor oral hygiene habits and lack exposure to the fluoride. However, in populations with good oral hygiene and expose to fluoride either systemic or topical, frequency of diet intake will become a weak risk factor (Axelson, 2000). 2.2.3 Microbiologic factor Fitzgerald and Keyes in year 1960, persons who firstly demonstrate that the dental disease is an infectous disease and can be transmissible. The sources of bacteria that cause dental caries derived from bacterial populations in the oral cavity named normal flora. The most important bacteria in development dental caries are the mutans streptococci. Mutans streptococci are acidogenic and can adhere to tooth surface. It also can produce extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from sucrose. So, it represent that mutans streptococci fulfill all the requirements of caries to induce bacteria (Axelson, 2000). Mutans streptococci and other bacteria colonies will colonize the oral cavity after emergance of infants first tooth(Caufield and Griffen, 2000). With present of fermentation of carbohydrate, bacteria pathogens will produce lactic acid, and this acid dissolves the hydroxyapatite crystal structure of the tooth (Caufield and Griffen, 2000). Newborn baby usually have a sterile mouth. Transmission of the microbes to the mouth can be derived from water, food, and other nutritious fluid, but the main route is via saliva. Studies have shown that the transmission of oral streptococci and Gram-negative species in children predominantly from the behaviour of mothers and primary caregivers through their intimate contact, sharing and tasting foods on a spoon or pacifier (Caufield et al., 1993). Infants acquired Mutans streptococci at a median age of 26 months. High level of Mutans streptococci in mothers saliva will put their infants to be acquired by these bacteria earlier. It is means that infants exhibit levels of Mutans streptococci corresponding to their mothers level (Caufield et al., 1993). Because of that, mothers need to be educating on how the caries transmissible and the importance of have good dental practice for themselves their childrens. 2.3 Determinants of oral health in children There were correlation between the etiologic factor in dental caries, determinants of caries (diet, fluoride exposure, microbial species) and involvement of cofounders in dental caries such as socio economic status, education level, knowledge, attitudes and behavior as Figure 2.2 below. fejerkov 001 Figure 2.2: Schematic illustration of the determinants of caries process. (Adapted from Fejeskov and Manji, 1990) 2.3.1 Socioeconomic factors Socioeconomic factors especially educational levels become the most important external factors related to dental caries nowadays (Axelson, 2000). There is a strong correlation between incidence of caries in children and the socioeconomic status of the families of those children. That is, children with caries tend to come from low-income or lower socioeconomic backgrounds and lower parental educational level (Leake et al., 2008, Finlayson et al., 2007, Schroth and Moffatt, 2005). 2.3.2 Behavioural factors Behavioural factors such as frequency of consumption of sugar daily, tooth brushing behaviour (Leake et al., 2008), inappropriate feeding practice either bottle feeding or breast feeding (Schroth and Moffatt, 2005, Mohebbi et al., 2008, Tyagi, 2008) and age of first visit to dental clinic (Rayner, 2003, Schroth and Moffatt, 2005) were related to the risk of dental caries especially in children. Parental attitudes towards oral health especially mother are is important to prevent occurrence of dental caries among children (Saied-Moallemi et al., 2008). 2.3.3 Environmental factors Environmental and cultural factors play a role in the development of caries. In newly industrialized countries, the incidence of dental caries increases when people previously eat a starchy staple foods and now move to refined carbohydrate diet. For most industrialized countries, high risk of caries related to persons in a lower socioeconomic and immigrant groups (Riva and Loveren, 2003). 2.4 The impact of early childhood caries to the children and parents Extensive dental decay among children, if left untreated will impact on both oral and general health, including quality of life. Physical function will affected because of pain, disturbed sleep, and difficulty to eat hard, hot and cold food. Mentally, dental caries cause fear and angry in children. The social functions also disturbed by missing preschool or day care, avoid playing with friends and not interested to join family activity. Emotionally, children disturbed with difficulty to say certain words (Cunnion et al., 2010). In other words, dental caries in children will effects physical, mental, social and emotional well being of the children. And most important things it causes lower quality of life of the children who are in growing stages. The impact of ECC on parents We know that parents contribute in their children oral health. But there are still limited study in investigating the relationship between the parents and their children oral health. (Schroth, 2007) found that parents with a better knowledge and attitude towards their children oral health more likely to have children with better oral health. In this study we are trying to explore the relationship between the parents oral health and their children oral health status. 2.5 The availability of children oral health related quality of life assessment Currently, there has been increase research development in measuring oral health related quality of life. The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments designed and used to investigate the impacts of oral problems in children, and recently have been designed to be use for 6-14 year old children. (Li et al., 2008, Easton et al., 2008, Klaassen et al., 2009, Cunnion et al., 2010). And very few have been developed for use in children mainly specifically for children age less than 6 years old. Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) were used to assess the prevalence and severity of the oral impacts in children age 10-12 years old. This questionnaire also can be used to assess oral health needs in population surveys, thus making it useful for planning services. The Child-OIDP assesses oral impacts on the following daily performances like eating, speaking, cleaning teeth, smiling, emotional stability, relaxing, doing schoolwork and social contact (BernabÃÆ' © et al., 2009). Instruments to assess oral health related negative impacts for children aged 3-5 years, recently was developed in the United States, in English language by (Pahel et al., 2007) called the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) which derived from the Childhood Oral Health Quality of Life (COHQoL) instrument developed by (Jokovic et al., 2002). This questionnaire seems to be adequate to measure quality of life of children in the age 3-5 years old and their families. The instrument is short and concise to be completed by the childs parent or primary caregiver for use in epidemiological surveys to discriminate the quality of life between children with or without dental disease. (Li et al., 2008) was translated the English version of ECOHIS into French version for the questionnaire can be use in the French language population. (Klaassen et al., 2009) use ECOHIS questionnaire to explore whether oral health related quality of life in young children will improve after oral rehabil itation after general anesthesia. They also study any changes towards dental fear. Canadian researchers (Jokovic et al., 2002) have developed the Child Oral a health Quality of Life (COHQoL) questionnaire due to their concern about the measurement of child health status preciously was based on the reports by parents and caregivers. In their questionnaire, there are several questionnaires for parent or caregiver (Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaires, P-CPQ) and Family Impact Scale (FIS) for children aged 6-14 years and three Child Perceptions Questionnaires for children aged 6 to 7(CPQ6-7), 8 to 10 (CPQ8-10), and 11-14(CPQ11-14) years of age. The Infant Toddler Quality of Life (ITQoL) questionnaire was developed in year 1994 by Landgraf JM. ITQoL was designed to measure a quality of life for children as 2 months up to 5 years old. The ITQOL items and scales developed to measure physical function, growth and development, bodily pain, temperament and moods, behavior and general health perceptions. ITQOL also includes scales to measure parental impact (time and emotions). Study by (Raat et al., 2007), to evaluate feasibility, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent and discriminative validity of the ITQoL, found five ITQoL scales showed a ceiling affect. They also suggest for developing and evaluating a shortened ITQoL version to reduce respondent burden. (Easton et al., 2008) were tried to ascertain reliability and validity of the ITQoL. They did a study among 2-6 years old Ohio, United State children to evaluate the effect of dental caries related to pain on pediatric quality of life. That study found that it was valid and reliable index among children there. 2.6 The role of parents to the children Children age less than 6 years old still depending on the family members especially their parents to take care of their oral health. Their inability to verbalize their emotions and needs increases their dependence on adult. Parents support and involvement in childs oral health are important in influencing the dental health of the child. Parents play a key role in attempts to achieve the best oral health outcomes for their young children (Cafferata and Kasper, 1985). Parents need to have an adequate knowledge and attitude towards the important of oral health for their children. Parents need to know the important of baby teeth and primary teeth tooth decay can impact childhood health. (Schroth, 2007) found that parents who believed that baby teeth are important were more likely to have children with better oral health (less decay) compared with those who thought otherwise. And parents of children with ECC were more likely to disagree that dental decay could affect a childs overall health. Brushing of young childrens teeth is important to prevent caries, but the parents cannot let their children do it by themselves. Parent need to be motivated and supportive enough to brush their childs teeth. The parents should belief that home oral hygiene is important and it is a parental duty to establish this behaviour with children (Huebner and Riedy, 2010). Their study also found that nearly all (91%) parents thought that brush a childs teeth twice daily a day was important, but only 55% reported that they did it every day. Parents reported that the most common barriers to tooth brushing were due to lack of time and uncooperative child. 2.4 Oral health related quality of life of the parents